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However, his premiership will forever be known for his decision to call, and then ultimately lose, the referendum on EU membership. Despite vowing to carry on as prime minister in the event of a Brexit vote, Cameron stood down on 24 June , just hours after the result had been declared. He left Parliament soon after and has since kept a relatively low profile. He has taken up several other consultant positions, was named vice-chairman of the UK China Fund and became a member of the Council of Foreign Relations. His time in office was dominated by the financial crisis and he stepped down as PM after the general election, remaining a backbench MP until Mr Brown does not receive a penny.

While rarely making forays into British national politics, he won admiration for his influential intervention in the Scottish independence referendum in with a stirring defence of the union. Last week, Brown - who lives with his family in Fife - set out plans to set up a new think tank, Our Scottish Future, to demonstrate why Scotland should remain in the UK.

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He left Number 10 in , just before the financial crisis, and his subsequent record out of office has only served to damage his reputation further. Yet while much attention has been paid to his business interests, Blair has also used his time since to pursue a number humanitarian causes close to his heart. Now, despite being viewed as toxic by many on the left, it seems he is intent on re-entering the political arena by fully committing himself to reversing Brexit. To this end, he has announced the closure of Tony Blair Associates, his private business empire, and the winding up of complex and controversial financial structures that have earned him so many millions and so much opprobrium.

The unlikely successor to Margaret Thatcher, John Major won a shock election victory in , but his premiership was rocked by Black Wednesday and came to be dominated by sleaze scandals and Tory infighting over Europe. Since leaving office, Major has indulged his love of cricket, becoming first president of Surrey County Cricket Club and then a member of the Marylebone Cricket Club MCC , historically the governing body of the sport.

Touted as a possible Tory candidate for the London mayoral election, Major eventually turned down an offer to stand saying his political career was behind him. A review of biographical sources of mental illness in US Presidents between and Davidson et al. It can be argued that Heads of Government might be expected to have a lower incidence of mental illness than the general population, reflecting the robust personality of people who are prepared to run for the highest political office in the two countries and therefore whether depression is a consequence of holding office.

Also many Heads of Government display hubristic traits which are difficult to quantify but do not, in our view, add up to the full hubris syndrome. We ascribe hubris syndrome definitively only to a few of these leaders, in part because we are wary of making the diagnosis of hubris syndrome where there is evidence of bipolar disorder, as for example with Theodore Roosevelt and Lyndon Johnson.

Is there such a thing as a good novel by a politician?

Where there are other illnesses, which could complicate the diagnosis, such as Woodrow Wilson's cerebro-vascular deterioration and Richard Nixon's alcoholic abuse, we signify a probable hubris syndrome with question marks in the table. There is little evidence of progression in Theodore Roosevelt's hubristic traits during his time as President, although they were ever present throughout his life. It is relevant in determining that he did not develop hubris syndrome that he kept his promise to the electors not to stand for a second term.

However, the fact that he took the controversial step of running on a third party ticket in , thereby splitting the Republican vote and handing the presidency to Woodrow Wilson is a sign that he was still hubristic out of office and indeed to the end of his life. As President of the US and as adventurer, Roosevelt lived at an extraordinarily high level of energy and was frequently grandiose, elated, restless, overtalkative and inordinately enthusiastic.

He functioned with very few hours of sleep and wrote, administered or explored ceaselessly. It is estimated that Roosevelt wrote more than letters in his lifetime, and a phenomenal number of books. The most recent assessment judges that Theodore Roosevelt suffered from bipolar 1 disorder Davidson et al.

Woodrow Wilson had such a complicated medical history that it is hard to disentangle. He had pre-existing chronic anxiety and depressive problems from early adulthood, then developed neurological episodes, probably vascular in origin, from onwards. Hypertension increased but these multiple health problems did not initially interfere with his competency in office, and his first years as President are widely judged to have been successful. Additionally, by late , his memory was failing. By this stage, he was showing features of dementia which may have intensified his hubristic traits. Yet, there seemed to be a progression in his hubris which leads us to question whether he had hubris syndrome.

Park noted that by early , Wilson was becoming stubbornly self-righteous, extremely certain in his views and rigid in his thinking Park, All of this occurred before his severe hemiplegia developed in September accompanied by neglect, but still within the context of growing dementia. In , Franklin Roosevelt came close to being taken over by hubris when he fought and lost a battle with Congress over the Judicial Branch Reorganization Plan, affecting the nomination of Justices to the Supreme Court.

18th-century Britain, 1714–1815

Kennedy displayed occasional hubris, particularly during the Bay of Pigs fiasco in Kennedy's hubris was in part related to his use of recreational drugs, amphetamine and bizarre levels of cortisone, which in a properly prescribed dose he had to take for his Addison's disease. Kennedy was almost certainly given an intravenous injection of amphetamine, perhaps with additional cortisone, just prior to a meeting with the Russian leader, Khrushchev, in Vienna in June and this very likely explains his poor performance at the meeting.

Fortunately, by the Cuban Missile Crisis in October his medication was under far better control and he showed a steadiness that made a significant contribution to defusing a potential nuclear confrontation Owen, Lyndon Johnson is an example of a leader who had severe depression and a family history suggestive of bipolar disorder. His megalomania is thought to have been bipolar, but it could have been hubristic or both Davidson et al. Richard Nixon began to behave evermore hubristically in the run up to the election over the summer and autumn of when it became very likely that he would win a second term.

Nixon in fact won 49 of the 50 states. But he soon revealed hubris and paranoia. The establishment is the enemy. Depression, drink and hubris all played their part in his illegal involvement in the cover up of the burglary of the Democratic HQ in Washington, the so-called Watergate scandal. Nowadays we give the Gods less credit. George W. Bush developed hubris syndrome after only a little more than 2 years in office. After Afghanistan he decided to invade Iraq. Of the 18 US Presidents during this year period, some personalities were widely judged to be non-hubristic and without substantial pathology, in particular Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, Gerald Ford and Ronald Reagan.

Reagan's Alzheimer's was not evident when he was examined in the Mayo Clinic in the summer of , a year after he left office Owen, Among British Prime Ministers, Asquith had hubristic traits but not hubris syndrome and these traits were overlaid by his alcoholic intake.

In April , his doctor warned him to substantially reduce his alcohol intake and some claim that henceforward he did so Owen, Red and bloated — quite different from what he used to be. He gave me a shock. They all talk of his overeating and drinking too much. He was warned to reduce his drinking by his doctor and this he did, but not completely. He had a couple of glasses big sherry glass size! He was the only Liberal in that War Cabinet and he worked with three Conservative politicians and one Labour MP in a consensual leadership. He was helped in curbing his hubristic tendencies by his close relationship with the skeptical Conservative MP, Bonar Law, who was Chancellor of the Exchequer and the two discussed difficult issues most days with the Prime Minister going across from No.

Lloyd George was less constrained after winning the election and began to develop hubris syndrome. He pulled more and more power into No. Then his virtues turned to failings. He committed the crime of arrogance. Neville Chamberlain developed hubris syndrome in the summer of only a year after taking office, although he had been covering for the Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, who was depressed, since the summer of Self, His mood on arrival back in England was exultant, even triumphalist. He had personalized power into No.

Some psychiatrists believe that Winston Churchill had bipolar disorder. On balance what some see as manic behaviour, or crazy exultation, we see as hubristic traits and perhaps hypomania and we are content to apply no diagnosis beyond that of his undoubted periodic depressions. The older he became the more he was affected by vascular dementia and excessive alcohol but there was no progression to hubris syndrome.

Anthony Eden's undoubted use of dextro-amphetamine combined in the same tablet with amylobarbitone in those days called Drinamyl explains some of his hubristic traits in the run up to the Suez Crisis. Margaret Thatcher, we judge, did not develop hubris syndrome until , 9 years after becoming Prime Minister. But some believe she was hubristic throughout her period in office.


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Yet for her first two terms she relied on the wise counsel of Willie Whitelaw and this probably helped contain her hubristic traits as had Bonar Law's relationship during the war years with Lloyd George. Over this it can be argued she was entitled to feel relieved after what could have been a disaster. Also she prudently did not use her new trade union legislation during the —85 miners strike.

After her third General Election victory in , she tried to impose the unpopular poll tax.

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Tony Blair's hubris syndrome started to develop over NATO's bombing of Kosovo in , 2 years after coming into office. He was starting to display excessive pride in his own judgements. After the dramatic collapse of the Twin Towers in New York on 11 September , Blair responded with hyperactive travel and hyperbolic speeches.