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The reservations became concentration camps, and traveling beyond the boundaries sometimes meant death. At times Anderson argues Indians were not safe, even in on the reserves.

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Anglos were known to kill defenseless women and children within the limits of the reservations. In the chapter, "Indians and the Civil War," Anderson claims that "rustling rings and drought caused much of the destruction in West Texas," an argument counter to traditional interpretations p. Offering a completely new interpretation of Texas Indian history during the Civil War, Anderson relies on tree ring data and drought history to make ecological arguments for why Indians raided rather than starve. Native involvement in the Civil War is more complex than scholars once thought and the accepted idea that Indians took advantage of the war to raid white homesteads does not stand up against historical realities.

Anderson covers Anglo and Tejano politics in detail but shortchanges coverage of Indian politics. For example, by reading Thomas Kavanagh's Comanche Political History: An Ethnohistorical Perspective, one learns about the patrilineal and militaristic Comanche society. For all the dissimilarities Anderson points out, he fails to fully recognize all the similarities between especially patrilineal societies, such as the Comanches and Anglos.

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Glossing over Comanche politics and focusing so deeply on Anglo-Texan politics opens the author up to accusations that he made Indians victims without agency. Although I believe Anderson gives Indians some agency, a more thorough treatment of Indian politics would add balance. Additionally, Anderson selectively chooses the events and characters to illustrate his story and speaks volumes through his omissions, leaving out massacres, in particular, that show Natives in a poor light.

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Anderson also ignores the prolific work of American Indian Historian F. Leaving out Smith's contributions represents a large omission. Despite these small criticisms, the work is beautifully written with excellent photographs, maps, and illustrations that accompany the provocative prose, and the work will stand as a major contribution to the fields of Native American studies and Texas history for years to come. Not only does the work offer a significant contribution, it spearheads a new field within the study of the American West--that of ethnic cleansing.

However, Anderson's work says more about Euro-Americans, specifically Anglo-Texans, penchants for racial hatred, than it does about Texas Indians. David La Vere, in The Texas Indians , explores the Indian perspective more than does Anderson, providing scholars and the general reading public an excellent overview of the Native American experience in Texas.

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His work is not a history of Euro-Americans and their relationships to Texas Indians; rather Texas Indians take "center stage. Texas Indians, neither "noble savages" nor "red devils," were humans with developed religious beliefs, political structures, kinship networks, economic strategies, and obligations of reciprocity. La Vere approaches his survey of Texas Indians thematically, but moves chronologically within his themes. He covers all the major tribes and their situations, such as the collapse of the Jumanos, Apache displacement, the Coahuiltecans in the Rio Grande valley, the hunter-gathering Atakapas, the Tonkawas of Central Texas, and the Karankawas of the Gulf Coast.

Immigrant Indians, including Seminoles, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Cherokees, and Creeks from the east also made a significant impact on Texas, especially after the Indian Removal Act of Beginning with Paleoindians and moving continuously through removal from Texas, the reservation period, allotment, and the s, he concludes with the difficulties that the Alabama-Coushattas and Tiguas still face.

La Vere's work is the current definitive survey of Texas Indians, replacing the more anthropological work of W. La Vere tells scholars in The Texas Indians that there is still "much historical and anthropological work Relocation in the s, gaming since the s, and natural resource management in the twentieth century are just a few areas ripe for study.

All three tell a story of Texas Indians figuratively and literally losing ground in Texas. Citation: Jahue Anderson. December, Safeco Insurance. Texas Mutual Insurance. View Carriers. About Us. Top-Notch Service. They are personable and have reached out to me while going through a VERY personal and traumatic time in my life. She took the time to explain everything to me in detail. Thank you! If they are not sure about your question, they say they will call back, and they do.

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