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The lake also has large areas of swamp and reedbeds. The floodplains on the southern lakeshore are covered in wetland grasses such as Echinochloa pyramidalis , Vetiveria nigritana , Oryza longistaminata , and Hyparrhenia rufa.

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The entire Lake Chad basin holds fish species, of which more than half are shared with the Niger River Basin , about half are shared with the Nile River Basin , and about a quarter are shared with the Congo River Basin. There are many floating islands in the lake. It is home to a wide variety of wildlife, including elephants , hippopotamus , crocodile all in decline , and large communities of migrating birds including wintering ducks , ruff Philomachus pugnax and other waterfowl and shore birds. There are two near-endemic birds in the region, the river prinia Prinia fluviatilis and the rusty lark Mirafra rufa.

The shrinking of the lake is threatening nesting sites of the black-crowned crane Balearica pavonina pavonina. During the wet season, fish move into the mineral-rich lake to breed and find food. Carnivores such as the Central African cheetah Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii , the striped hyena Hyaena hyaena and the caracal Felis caracal used to inhabit areas surrounding the lake. There is some debate over the mechanisms causing the lake's disappearance.

The leading theory, which is most often cited by the UN, is that the unsustainable usage of the lake by both governments and local communities has caused the lake to be over-used , not allowing it to replenish. Recently, however, an additional theory is gaining traction.

This states that European air pollution had shifted rainfall patterns farther south, thereby making the region drier and not allowing the lake to replenish. Since the implementation of new regulations in the EU concerning air pollutants, much of this rainfall is now beginning to return, thereby explaining the small improvements observed since The only protected area is the Lake Chad Game Reserve, which covers half of the area next to the lake that belongs to Nigeria.

The whole lake has been declared a Ramsar site of international importance.

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Speaking at the United Nations 73rd General Assembly, the President of Nigeria urged the international community to assist in combatting the root causes of conflict surrounding the Lake Chad Endorheic basin. Recent violence in the region has been attributed to competition between farmers and herders seeking irrigation for crops and watering of herds respectively.

The copious amount of water from the Ubangi would revitalize the dying Lake Chad and provide livelihood in fishing and enhanced agriculture to tens of millions of central Africans and Sahelians. Interbasin water transfer schemes were proposed in the s and s by Nigerian engineer J. Neighboring countries have agreed to commit resources to restoring the lake, notably Nigeria.

The dwindling of the lake has devastating impacts on Nigeria. For example, the decline or disappearance of the endangered painted hunting dog has been noted in the Lake Chad area. The shrinking of the lake has also caused several different conflicts to emerge as the countries bordering Lake Chad argue over the rights to the remaining water. Along with the international conflicts, violence with countries is also increasing among the lake's dwellers.

Farmers and herders want the water for their crops and livestock and are constantly diverting the water, [39] while the lake's fishermen want water diversion slowed or halted in order to prevent continuing decline in water levels resulting in further strain on the lake's fish. They are predominantly fishers and cattle-herders.

In the past, the Buduma carried out violent raids on the cattle herds of their neighbors. They were feared villains with aggressive reputations; thus, they were respected and left alone for many years, protected by their own habitat of water and reeds. Today, they are a peaceful and friendly people willing to adopt some modern changes.

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Although their neighbors call them Buduma, meaning "people of the grass or reeds ," they prefer to be called Yedina. Their language is known as Yedina. Since its independence in , South Sudan has also been commonly included in the region. It has no outlet to the sea and contains large areas of desert or semi-arid savanna.

The drainage basin is roughly coterminous with the sedimentary basin of the same name, but extends further to the northeast and east. The basin spans eight countries, including most of Chad and a large part of Niger.

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The region has an ethnically diverse population of about 30 million people as of , growing rapidly. A combination of dams, increased irrigation, climate change, and reduced rainfall are causing water shortages, contributing to terrorism and the rise of Boko Haram in the region. Lake Chad continues to shrink. The firefight was not planned as the purpose of the mission was aimed at setting "The conditions for future parnter-led operations against violent extremist organizations in the region" the statement added.

The attack came a little over two months after an ambush in the village of Tongo Tongo that left at least 30 dead including four Americans. The December firefight was first learned of after a declassified report made for Congress was obtained and reported by The New York Times. The firefight is just one of 10 other incidents involving American personal in Niger. During these previous firefights excluding the ambush that happened two months earlier only a few enemy combatants died while no Americans or Nigeriens were hurt.

This event and most prominently the October ambush led to security changes for US forces operating in the region such as armored vehicles instead of lightly armored SUV's, the arming of drones, and taking a closer look at when US forces conduct operations with local troops. It lies in the northern Kaouar escarpment, a north-south line of cliffs which form an isolated oasis in the Sahara desert. As of , the commune had a total population of 14, people.

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While isolated in modern Niger, it once lay on the important central soudan route of the Trans-Saharan trade which linked coastal Libya and the Fezzan to the Kanem-Bornu Empire near Lake Chad. Its population is made up primarily of traditionally sedentary Kanuri people, as well as semi-nomadic Tuareg and Tubu people.

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The Central Intelligence Agency operates a drone base near Dirkou. Chad is one of the 48 land-locked countries in the world and is located in North Central Africa, measuring 1,, square kilometers , sq mi , nearly twice the size of France and slightly more than three times the size of California. Most of its ethnically and linguistically diverse population lives in the south, with densities ranging from 54 persons per square kilometer in the Logone River basin to 0. Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti desert region, which itself is larger than France.

Chad has four bioclimatic zones.

The northernmost Saharan zone averages less than mm 7. The sparse human population is largely nomadic, with some livestock, mostly small ruminants and camels. The central Sahelian zone receives between and mm 7. The southern zone, often referred to as the Sudan zone, receives between and 1, mm Rainfall in the Guinea zone, located in Chad's southwestern tip, ranges between 1, and 1, mm The country's topography is generally flat, with the elevation gradually rising as one moves north and east away from Lake Chad.

The highest point in Chad is Emi Koussi, a mountain that rises 3, m 10, ft in the northern Tibesti Mountains. There are also central highlands in the Guera region rising to 1, m 4, ft.

Lake Chad is the second largest lake in west Africa and is one of the most important wetlands on the continent. Home to species of fish and at least that many species of birds, the lake has shrunk dramatically in the last four decades due to increased water usage from an expanding population and low rainfall. Bordered by Chad, Niger, Nigeria, and Cameroon, Lake Chad currently covers only square kilometers, down from 25, square kilometers in The Chari and Logone Rivers, both of which originate in the Central African Republic and flow northward, provide most of the surface water entering Lake Chad.

Chad is also next to Niger. The earliest presence of Islam in Chad can be traced back to the legendary Uqba ibn Nafi, whose descendants can be found settled in the Lake Chad region to this day.


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By the time Arab migrants began arriving from the east in the fourteenth century in sizeable numbers, the creed was already well established. Islamization in Chad was gradual, the effect of the slow spread of Islamic civilization beyond its political frontiers. Islam in Chad was not influenced much by the great mystical movements of the Islamic Middle Ages, nor the fundamentalist upheavals that affected other countries. Consistent contact with West African Muslim traders and pilgrims may be the reason Chadian Muslims identify with the Tijaniyya order.

Similarly, in the mid-nineteenth century, the Sanusiyya brotherhood was founded in Libya, which benefited from economic and political influence in the Lake Chad Basin around An Islamic revival movement, feared by some French, led by Sanusi fanatics, Chadian adherents, limited to the Awlad Sulayman Arabs and the Toubou of eastern Tibesti, have never been numerous. Higher Islamic education in Chad is sparse; thus, serious Islamic students and scholars must travel to other countries.

Naturale conseguenza sono fenomeni di surriscaldamento e danni al motore. Se la coppia di serraggio risulta troppo elevata, il corpo metallico Candela con sede piatta con guarnizione Materiale testata. Hvis det bliver valgt for lavt, truer kompressionstab og overophedning. Kiristysmomentit Sytytystulpan oikeaa asennusta varten tarvitaan momenttiavain. Jos kiristysmomentti on liian suuri, sytytystulppa voi katketa. Erkennbarer Irrtum sowie offensichtliche Druckfehler unterliegen der Sorgfaltspflicht des Anwenders.

La condition de base requise est une manipulation objective et correcte des produits NGK. GB This application list is only valid for type identification. This catalogue supersedes all previous catalogues. We do not accept any responsibility in respect of legal claims arising out of the contents of this list. Spark Plug recommendations regarding FAA guidelines for aeroplane power units are not included in this edition.